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«Anonimo Sermonetano» a Musical Graffito at the Castle of Sermoneta  
Wolfgang Witzenmann (Guido Piperno curatore edizione musicale computerizzata)
ISSN 1127-4883     BTA - Telematic Bulletin of Art, June 15th 1999, n. 186

1. Introduction

Sermoneta, a little town of about 1500 inhabitants (1960), is situated near Via Appia about 80 km south-east from Rome, on a promontory at the edge of Pontina plain. Till now the borgo has been maintaining its medieval look. The huge castle edified by Annibaldis in the first half of thirteenth century is well known. Approximately in 1300 pope Boniface VIII bought the borgo for his family - the Caetanis -, which still owns it. The building has got a big tower (maschio), preserved in its original thirteenth century shape, bulwarks, private and military lodgings, cisterns. The plant was enlarged and transformed by the Borgias in the first years of sixteenth century, in order to transform it in a fortress. Plundered in 1798 by French soldiers the castle was restored after the 2nd world war.

The landlords Caetani are quite famous 01 . Lords of Gaeta in the eighth century, they later on divided in several branches, those from Pisa, Rome, Naples and Sicily. The dukes of Sermoneta-princes of Teano are from the Roman branch, and they - in different periods - were possessing also Caserta, Venafro, Fondi, Cisterna and other places. From this branch of the family came pope Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303), 17 cardinals and many bishops. Some members of the various Caetani families distinguished as maecenas and lovers of arts and sciences: for example cardinal Niccolò (1526-1585) in the sixteenth century, cardinal Enrico and monsignor Camillo (both of them in the second half of the sixteenth century); more recently Michelangelo Caetani (1804-1852), sculptor, man of letters and patriot; Don Roffredo (1871-1961), composer; Don Gelasio (1877-1934), engineer and historian.

2. Transcription

Having been invited by Luigi Fiorani, the archivist of the Foundation "Camillo Caetani" of Rome, in the summer of 1993, I was able to study the quite well known musical graffito of Sermoneta and to make a transcription of it. The graffito can be found in the castle, more precisely in the so-called "Casa del Cardinale" (house of the cardinal) 02 . That is a one floor wing situated in the north-east of the big court-yard "Piazza d’armi". This building was erected, as a stable, in the beginning of sixteenth century under the pope Alexander VI Borgia and was modified in a house in the first half of the same century, by Caetanis, probably in order to become young cardinal Nicolò Caetani's 03 mansion 04 . The house is composed by seven rooms: a wide saloon and six half size rooms (used as private apartments), two on the left and four on the right side of the saloon.

The graffito is situated in the first room on the right side of the saloon, more exactly on the left wall in the back. Though the graffito is at the height of human eye, its position (without doubt the original one) is not privileged at all. On the contrary the graffito seems to be almost hidden close to a hind corner of the room, which is rather dark without the help of artificial light.

The graffito has the following measures: overall length 1,98 m, overall height 54 cm; more recently the graffito was framed by Gelasio Caetani, with a 2- 2,5 cm painted border of brown 05 . The graffito was engraved on a plaster of mortar made up by lime and pozzolana (a fine sand). The plaster was originally painted with a light grey; moreover there are stains of a second yellow paint. There are also signs of a restoration made under the guide of Gelasio Caetani in the first decades of twentieth century. The execution of the graffito is in the manner of "graffiatura" (scratching) with a needle or a fine chisel, and shows the signs in the dark grey colour of the mortar. The pentagram is drawn freely but with sufficient evenness; the signs are fine, precise and elegant.

These reflections on place and material execution solicit a first question. Was the graffito possibly written by a musician, perhaps the composer of the melodic line himself? The answer will be positive if we risk a reasonable hypothesis. In this case it could be even an autograph of a rather particular type. We should remember that history of music has sometimes presented graphically gifted musicians: for example Salvator Rosa or, more recently, Paul Hindemith and Arnold Schoenberg.

Before our attempts of transcription existed Gelasio Caetani’s 06 . and Friedrich Lippmann’s (unpublished) partial and complete transcriptions yet. Encouraged by these precedings, we hope to succeed with a rather faithful and entrusting transcription of the Sermoneta graffito.


3. Comment

The graffito has the title "fuga a III", with reference to an instrumental piece of three parts, but only one part given. These circumstances often indicate the musical genre of a canon: the entire structure would come out by two superimpositions of the identical melodic line over the given part. Indeed this is precisely the significance of the term "fuga" from the fourteenth century until the beginning of seventeenth century.

Attempts of solutions in that direction however have not given reasonable results. At that point it was necessary to search for more terminological information; so we can establish that the term "fuga" branched out in the second half of sixteenth century. The so-called "fuga sciolta" (according to Zarlino) is described as a musical technique that joins several genres as capriccio, fantasia and ricercare. Especially there is the possibility to read the title "fuga" of our graffito (datable on about 1580) with reference to the genre of ricercare.

If the melodic line is really a part of a polyphonic instrumental piece, it should be singled out that the disposition for three voices markes a rarity in the field of ricercare in the second half of sixteenth century - at least regarding the printed ricercari 08 . The ricercare for three voices reaches its highest point an around 1550, with the famous ricercares by Adrian Willaert published in 1551 09 . After this date the ricercare for three voices seems to become a genre cultivated only in isolated local areas as, for example, Verona (Vincenzo Ruffo, 1564; Giovanni Bassano, 1585), for to be retaken at Naples in the beginning of seventeenth century (Ascanio Maione, 1603 and 1606). From 1556 on however the big majority of printed ricercares is for four or more parts, meanwhile numerous ricercares for two parts have mainly didactic aims. It is true that the ricercares by Willaert are reprinted in 1559 and 1593. But this circumstance seems to indicate more a lasting popularity of Willaert rather than a marked predilection for the genre with three parts.

The examination of metrical symbols encourages us in our opinion that the title "fuga" only apparently suggest the presence of canon, meanwhile the real structure denies such appearance. There is a big semicircle with a point in the centre on the left of the clef 10 ; on the right of the clef there are three little signs in a vertical order: in the centre again the semicircle with central point, above and beneath two cutted semicircles. The semicircle with a point signifies the "tempus imperfectum cum prolatione maiore", where one semibreve is subdivided into three minims. The cutted semicircle signify the "tempus imperfectum diminutum", where the semibreve in subdivided into two minims, and two semibreves build up one bar (tactus). But an attempt to read this assemblage of metrical signs in the sense of the old "canon with different measures" (Mensurkanon), does not seem to be practicable. We suppose that these symbols probably should give an aspect of mysterious antiquity to the graphical result, in syntony with the title "fuga", without containing a particular metrical significance. Another enigma is given by the clef. It is composed by two parts: at the left a hook similar to a capital U, very close and capsized, and to the right two little minims in vertical order. Evidently this group is indicating a bass clef on the third line of staff. In the left sign - instead of the capsized U - perhaps one can see a close m halved vertically (a hidden monogram for the name Macque?).

The bass clef on third line, in this specific position, can assume the term "baritone clef". There is another problem. The voice of our graffito is a Tenor or a Bass? Oftenly the baritone clef indicates a bass part, but in certain cases it may also indicate a tenor part 11 . Regarding however the ricercare with three parts in the sixteenth century, the relative tenors generally are in C-clefs 12 . In this field I never was able to find a F-clef for a tenor part. But the circumstance which exclude definitely the hypothesis of a tenor in the Sermoneta graffito, regardes the ambit of the part: going down to the bass A, this voice is largely out the of the usual ambit for an instrumental tenor in the ricercare of the time, ambit that does not undergo the C (as for example in the ricercares by Willaert). The voice of the graffito can only be a bass.

Before we enter in more detailed stylistic questions, we should introduce a new personage, namely the musician who in our opinion must be regarded as together the engraver of the graffito and the composer of the melodic line: the French-Flemish master Giovanni (Jean) de Macque, born in 1550 in Valenciennes (Hennegau) and dead in 1614 in Naples 13 .

The French-Flemish school flourished in the area of the modern French-Belgian frontier and exercited a decisive influence on polyphonic music from about 1430 to about 1560. As an heir of the great French tradition but also liable to English influences, this school had a strong predominance mainly in Italy (through the so-called 'oltramontani') and France, but also in Germany. Churches and courts often preferred French-Flemish musicians as chapel masters and singers to native ones. As to Macque, we should underline that he was quite a late exponent of this school, just when it began to loose its predominance over Italian music.

In about 1560 we find Macque at the imperial court chapel of Vienna as a boy singer. After he changed his voice, in 1563 Macque went to Rome where he became a pupil of the famous composer Filippo de Monte. In about 1580 Macque approached the "Vertuosa compagnia dei musici di Roma" and strengthened his friendship to some famous members of this society, like - among others - Marenzio, Nanino brothers and Palestrina. In that same period Macque had fruitful relationships with Roman Caetani family.

In December 1585 Macque moved to Naples, where prince Carlo Gesualdo of Venosa became his pupil. In 1592 Macque married a Neapolitan woman, a circumstance that obliged him to spend his further life in the Parthenopean city. As a chapel master of the viceroy from 1599, he had many other pupils, for example Ascanio Maione (who was also involved in the ricercare for three parts after the example of Macque) and Giovanni Maria Trabaci.

Macque took up the more important stylistic changes of the second half of sixteenth century, achieving to the so-called 'syncretism of styles'. As a late representative of French-Flemish school, Macque mitigated the severe structural prescriptions through a search of a new expressivity, showing also an interest in simple melodies and even Mediterranean popular ones. With these personal traits Macque perfectly succeeded to adapt himself to Italian taste and behaviour.

Now introducing particular stylistic questions, we should compare the Sermonetan bass to suitable examples of instrumental music for three voices. The best models I found are ricercares by Adrian Willaert 14 and the music by Giovanni de Macque 15 , especially his Capriccio sopra un soggetto and his Capriccio sopra tre soggetti, compositions datable on about 1590 16 .

First of all we must solve the problem about the tonality of the bass, it is to say the mode. The exordium seems to suggest a C-mode, but the final cadence in E (we get the evidence about E being the last note of the bass and also of the entire piece, from the E being written in form of a longa). All these observations lead us to the necessity to assign to the voice a phrygian mode in E, more precisely the authentic third mode in E. Bernhard Meier 17 showed that the third mode is characterised by a tonal model E-G-A-C', in which C' markes the 'repercussio', that means the recitation mode in Gregorian chant.


The exordium in Macque and Willaert displays the tonal space from E' to C'', whereas the second theme by Willaert goes down to the lower C'. The Sermonetan anonymous eliminates the E from the tonal space of the first theme enphatizing the B natural. Neverthless the derivation from Willaertian source is still quite evident, especially if we regard - in Willaert - the connection between the end of the first theme and the beginning of the second one. Furthermore also in the Sermonetan bass, after the exposition of first theme, we find a descent to the lower C. Generally speaking, in the phrygian mode there are oftenly exordia which seem to suggest a C- mode, and only during the development of musical discourse the E as tonal centre gradually comes out.

Regarding the melodic and rhythmic structure of the Sermonetan bass, we should examine whether all the 141 notes of the line have the same importance, or certain notes are more important then others. It does not seem difficult to distinguish several metric unities which the theory of ricercare defines as "soggettos". Here is the list:


Also among the flourish counterpoints developed from soggetto d) we find motivic connections consisting partly in the rhythms (a dotted minim followed by a more or less long chain of semiminims), partly in tonal spaces (with preference to the ambit of fifth which can be restricted until to third or enlarged until to sixth).

Stylistic comparisons of these soggettos have revealed similarities between the Sermonetan anonym, Willaert an Macque. Especially the soggetto a) can be compared to the first soggetto of the Capriccio sopra tre soggetti by Macque. 18 .


Note that the central parts of the two soggettos are identical both in rhythms and in intervals.

Soggetto b) by the Sermonetan anonym allows the following comparisons:


19      20 .

Between the anonym and Macque there is an identity as in global temporal extension (eight notes in both soggettos) as in the shape of the motivic heads. Also between Willaert and the anonym emerges an identity in temporal extension and even a fully rhythmical identity of themes. We should, however, remark a substantial melodic diversity: meanwhile the anonym (as Macque) favours the rhythmical impulse before the melodic one - with three repeated notes and the accent on the fourth one -, in Willaert prevails the flowing melodic wave-motion with only two repeated notes (arsis andthesis) followed by an immediate undulation. In this way the Willaertian soggetto, though being clearly declamatory, does not meddle with the global melodic flow of his ricercare.

Regarding especially to the ending F-A-B-C of the Sermonetan soggetto, this pattern reveals to be very similar to that by Willaert, compared to which appears to be a sort of melodic inversion. With just few changes it would be possible to put the two soggettos in a strict counterpoint relationship.


These observations, however, are effective only with regard to the first statement of the Sermonetan soggetto. All variants, on the contrary, suddenly loose the discussed melodic ending, evidencing even more the rhythmical character of the subject. Therefore these variants appear to be just quite distant from the flowing style of Willaert.

Regarding to technique of motivic variation, it is very well-developed as in Willaert as in Macque. The older master however displays, in the exordium of a ricercare, the first subject always in a stright literal manner (including the 'tonal' answer and the melodic inversion). The Sermonetan anonym on the contrary - as we have seen - varies the first soggetto immediately at the beginning of his composition. This situation is not comparable to that in Willaert but rather like that found in Macque:


It must be underlined that the subject by Macque, just at the piece beginning, suffers rhythmical modifications tending to a gradual accelerando of musical discourse, mainly by the technique of repeated halving of rhythmic values.

On formal level, we can make comparisons regarding the global temporal extension of pieces and their formal disposition.

The Sermonetan bass measures exactly 40 bars alla breve. Much longer are the ricercares by Willaert which generally surpass, sometimes considerably 21 , the 100 bars alla breve. Only ricercare 9 (which occupies a particular stylistic position) is much shorter, measuring only 62 bars. Capriccios by Macque are usually less extended than ricercares by Willaert. In Watelet-Piscaer we find a capriccio with 80 bars 22 and another one with 66 bars 23 , nearly therefore corresponding to ninth ricercare by Willaert as to length.

But in that period there were also ricercares even shorter. We can find some examples in Fantasie a tre voci (1585) by Giovanni Bassano 24 . These fantasies - stylistically near to the ricercare - measures between 54 and 63 bars, approaching the Sermonetan bass to a certain degree. The latter reveals to be a very brief but structurally dense composition, considering its numerous subjects with the variants.

We must now regard the formal disposition of the Sermonetan bass. The first soggetto (with the variants) occupies a relatively short temporal space in the first nine bars. Only at the end of the bass appears a variant, scarcely evident, of course, but referable to the second variant of the first soggetto (note 27 ff.). This appearing of the first soggetto at the end gets the function of ripresa, as in similar circumstances in Willaert's ricercares 25 .

However from bar 10 of the bass to bar 34 the second soggetto reigns with variants in a nearly uncontested manner - except two apparitions of the third soggetto and the fluid counterpoints -: the central part of the bass is mainly occupied by the second soggetto. With its three repeated notes and the first accent on the fourth note this subject is rather atypical in ricercares but typical in the canzone francese.

The piece in which the bass is a part, begins indeed as a true ricercare. But after the end of the first soggetto in bar 9, the piece suffers a variation of character: from now almost to the end largely prevails the second subject and the character of the canzone francese. Concluding, the Sermonetan ricercare has to be considered as an example of the so-called "formal syncretism" that, from about 1570, appeared to be a new stylistic device in the instrumental production of the sixteenth century 26 . Yet Willaert, in his ricercares of 1551, had never broken the melodic flow in counterpoint of lines, even when he had used, for example, a subject rhythmically similar to the second Sermonetan soggetto, conserving thus the stylistic unity of his music. On the contrary Macque, in about 1590: his Capriccio sopra tre soggetti is still a rather traditional ricercare. But his Capriccio sopra un soggetto is a good and eloquent example of the new formal syncretism. The piece begins as a true ricercare, but after the middle enter almost 'mechanical' repetitions of circular patterns, dug up from the motivic head of the principal subject. Furthermore we find (bar 48) an intermezzo in triple meter which introduces the dance-like character of the galliard. Altogether the mentioned piece by Macque reveals to be a ricercare in its first half, changing then clearly to the features of the canzone francese.

Returning to the Sermonetan bass, we can establish that it occupies an intermediate stylistic position between the Capriccio sopra tre soggetti and the Capriccio sopra un soggetto by Macque. On the ground of these considerations I propose as a date for the Sermonetan bass the time from about 1580 to about 1585.

4. Reconstruction

If we would try to reconstruct the piece, we should underline that it cannot be done literally and philologically as to the two missing voices. But we can try to use the models shown in our precedent analysis and add freely the missing voices, possibly fitting the style of the bass to a certain degree. The principal model I chose is the Capriccio sopra tre soggetti by Giovanni de Macque, but as this Capriccio is not representative of syncretistic style, it cannot be used as unique model for the entire Sermonetan bass. The mentioned piece by Macque seems, however, to fit as well as a model for the exordium of the latter.


We can observe that not all of the voices enter on the first subject, the treble entering on the second and the bass on the third one. As well important are the variations on first subject, introduced just at the beginning of the piece.

Our reconstruction therefore uses such stylistic elements. Each voice displays the first subject with variations; single voices introduce subjects different from the first one. In the piece as a whole we can single out four soggettos. Given the presence of the so-called chiavetta, notes had been transposed to the lower fifth. What we have established until now, refers just to the ricercare exordium. As models for the remaining music we selected the Canzoni francesi by Macque published by Watelet-Piscaer.


5. Conclusions

We have to remember, once again, the ambiguous title "fuga" and the enigmatic metrical signs. We saw that the fugue genre as canon,with its characteristic combination of signs, is to be understood as a reference to the ancient Flemish school of about 1500. Perhaps the composer could have been using those elements in order to express his feelings about his being still, though in some way already detached, bound to that school - or perhaps was he Flemish?

There another question could be raised. Could it be an example of 'Musica riservata'? This is a term specialised musicologists well know, referring to a part of vocal and instrumental chamber music of sixteenth-seventeenth centuries. 27 . These pieces were 'reserved' to certain cultivated people as dedicatees. Not always the composer was allowed to print his music 'reserved' to others. Such a type of music generally evidences the skillness of the composer through special devices, as bold chromatic or enharmonic effects or counterpointal procedures following "the most reserved and hidden rules" (regole più riservate e recondite), as a theorist of the period said. 28 .

Referring to the Sermonetan bass, it does not show any chromatic effect - on the contrary, it does not contain any 'musica ficta' - ; but the bass is potentially rich of refined counterpoint combinations.

So we reached the final question. Who were the composer and the eventual dedicatee of this music ? We don't know it with any certainty. But we can make a well founded hypothesis.

Probably we should search the dedicatee - perhaps just the landlord - among the following personages: cardinal Nicolò Caetani (1526-1585), monsignor (then cardinal from december 1585) Enrico Caetani, one of Nicolò's nephews, monsignor Camillo Caetani (1552-1602), brother of Enrico 29 . Cardinal Nicolò, dedicatee of the Ricercari (1558) by Giovanni Battista Conforti, seems to be rooted in the Renaissance aestetics yet and therefore perhaps less disposed to the formal syncretism of the Sermonetan bass. So remaining just Camillo and Enrico Caetani, between them we should prefer monsignor Enrico (1550-1599), because, so to speak, of equity. Camillo is dedicatee of the Secondo libro di madrigaletti (1582) by Macque yet, and musical prints by Marenzio and Filippo de Monte as well 30 . Enrico instead, as much as we know, is not dedicatee of any musical print.

In our comment has been evidenced a strong stylistic relationship between the Sermonetan anonym and Giovanni de Macque. Furthermore Adrian Willaert (ca. 1490-1562) seems to be the stylistic model in both cases. Therefore perhaps the anonym and Macque were the same person. Especially some rhythmical and structural features of the graffito - as in the published works by Macque - are too peculiar to be easily imitated by others. We should also consider that Roman masters of the time rarely cultivated autonomous instrumental music.

If we maintain the hypothesis regarding Macque, also the indications for Enrico Caetani as dedicatee will become stronger. In a letter of 7 march 1586 from Naples, Macque thanks his roman friend Norimberghi "for the reverence you made to signor Cardinale [Enrico Caetani] and to the signor Camillo [Caetani] on behalf of me " 31 . In this way Macque puts both his roman ex-patrons on the same level with regard to his gratefulness. We should ask why eventually Macque should have dedicated an important musical print to Camillo, and not any music to Enrico at all. Just in 1585 there were two very important events in the career of the latter: at the end of July he was created patriarch of Alessandria in Egypt and then in December cardinal - events certainly linked to accademies of vocal and instrumental chamber music. In one of these occasions Macque could have received a commission to write, for Enrico, a ricercare or perhaps a series of six, nine or twelve ricercares for three voices.

But, perhaps, there could be no immediate and direct link between the Sermonetan graffito and a Roman festivity. More simply the composer - engraving a melody on the wall of a private room - could have been going to leave some trace of himself or some sort of signature, thankfully remembering the hospitality he enjoyed during a summer staying in Sermoneta, perhaps his last one. But also in this case probably we must guess that the Sermonetan bass is a part of a ricercare or even a group of ricercares dedicated - and perhaps 'reserved' - to an important personage, for example Enrico Caetani.

Thus we have a series of possible hypotheses. The situation of uptodate research doesn't allow any more. We will have to study more closely the instrumental music in the second half of sixteenth century and especially the whole instrumental production by Giovanni de Macque as in manuscripts as printed. We will have furthermore to investigate the musical activity of Caetani family in that period. Early or later will come the time to resolve entirely the enigma of the "anonimo Sermonetano".


1 Vittorio SPRETI and others, «Enciclopedia Storico-Nobiliare Italiana», vol. II, Bologna, 1981, p. 232f: article «Caetani» by Temistocle BERTUCCI.

2 Gelasio CAETANI, Domus Caietana, vol.1/2, San Casciano Val di Pesa, 1927, p. 237, 249-256, with three plans of the castle regarding the various phases of its architectonic history. I am indebted to Riccardo Cerocchi, President of the «Caetani Foundation» at Latina, for his precious informations during a common visit of the castle in 1994.

3 He has been assumed to cardinalate at the age of only twelve years and as a cardinal lived at Sermoneta from 1537 to 1540.

4 Gaspare DE CARO, article «Caetani, Nicola», in: "Dizionario biografico degli italiani", vol.16, Rome, 1973, p. 197-201.

5 Other mesures: lenght of pentagram 154 cm, partially filled up with the melodic line until altogether 125 cm; height of pentagram 4-5 cm ; height of pentagram with title «fuga» 10 cm.

6 Gelasio CAETANI, op.cit., vol. II, 1933, p. 34 (partial transcription).

7 Klaus-Jürgen SACHS, article Fuga, in «Riemann Musiklexikon, Sachteil», Mainz, 1967, p. 307f.

8 Cf. Claudio SARTORI, Bibliografia della musica strumentale italiana stampata in Italia fino al 1700, Florence, 1952.

9 SARTORI, p. 16.

10 Metrical symbols on the left of the clef seem to be very rare in musical iconography. However Volker SCHERLIESS quotes a similar example in Musikalische Noten auf Kunstwerken der Renaissance bis zum Anfang des 17. Jahrhunderts, Hamburg, 1972, p. 101, n. XV: inlay in the choir of the Sienese cathedral, by Giovanni da Verona (1456-1528).

11 Patrizio BARBIERI, «Chiavette» and modal transposition in Italian practice (c.1500-1837), in "Recercare" III (1991), p. 5-75:19,21.

12 Instructive is a schedule at the end of: Giovanni BASSANO, Sieben Trios, edited by di Edith KIWI («Hortus Musicus» 16, Kassel, 1958).

13 Article Macque, Giovanni de (Jean), by Renato BOSSA, in: «Dizionario Enciclopedico Universale della Musica e dei Musicisti - Le Biografie», 4 (1986), p.562.

14 Adrian WILLAERT, Ricercari a 3 voci, edited by Hermann ZENCK («Antiqua - Eine Sammlung Alter Musik», Mainz, 1933).

15 Carles GUILLOT, Giovanni de MACQUE, Carolus LUYTHON, Werken voor orgel of voor vier speeltuigen, edited by Jo-seph WATELET and Anny PISCAER («Monumenta Musicae Belgicae», 4e Jaargang, 1938, Amsterdam, 2/1968), p. 33-69.

16 This hypothesis derives from stylistic evaluations relied to the circumstance that the two capriccios come from a manuscript conserved in the «Biblioteca del Conservatorio» of Naples. (Ms. 73). At Naples Macque has been from 1586 on. Cf also Friedrich LIPPMANN, Giovanni de Macque fra Roma e Napoli, in «Rivista Italiana di Musicologia», XIII (1978), p. 245-279.

17 Bernard MEIER, Die Tonarten der klassischen Vokalpolyphonie, Utrecht, 1974, p. 312.

18 Ed. WATELET-PISCAER (cf. note 15), p. 41.

19 Ed. WATELET-PISCAER, p. 46.

20 Ed. ZENCK (cf.note 14), p. 38.

21 Ed. ZENCK. The ricercares 1-8 measure between 101 and 163 bars alla breve.

22 Capriccio sopra un soggetto, ed. WATELET-PISCAER, p. 39-41.

23 Capriccio sopra tre soggetti, ed. WATELET-PISCAER, p. 41-43.

24 Cf. note 11.

25 Ed. ZENCK, ricercare 5.

26 Cf. Dietrich KÄMPER, Studien zur instrumentalen Ensemblemusik des 16. Jahrhunderts in Italien, Köln, 1970 («Analecta musicologica», 10), p. 152-155.

27 Bernhard MEIER, Reservata-Probleme. Ein Bericht, in: "Acta musicologica", 30 (1958), p. 77-89; furthermore Hell-mut FEDERHOFER, Monodie und musica reservata, in: "Deutsches Jahrbuch der Musikwissenschaft", 2 (1957) («Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters», 49), p. 30-36.

28 Antonio BRUNELLI (1610), citato da FEDERHOFER, p. 31.

29 Gaspare DE CARO, articles Caetani, Nicola e Caetani, Enrico, and Georg LUTZ, article Caetani, Camillo, in «Dizionario biografico degli italiani», 16, Rome, 1973, p. 197-201, 148-155, 137-141. - See also LIPPMANN, op.cit. (see note 16), passim.

30 Cf. LIPPMANN, p. 251.

31 Cf. LIPPMANN, p. 255.



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